ybersecurity is an important consideration for any modern factory. With the rise of connected technologies, manufacturers and industrial operations are increasingly vulnerable to cyberattacks. OT (Operational Technology) security provides the necessary protection against these threats.

In today’s rapidly evolving digital landscape, manufacturing companies face an increasing array of cyber threats that can jeopardize not only their sensitive data but also the integrity of their production processes. 

As the manufacturing sector embraces digital transformation and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to improve efficiency, reduce downtime, and optimize supply chains, it becomes more crucial than ever to prioritize cybersecurity.

Operational Technology (OT) in Manufacturing

Introducing Operational Technology (OT) into a manufacturing business is a complex process, and there are many points of potential failure. OT creates a cyber-physical system that connects physical inputs and outputs with digital systems, including data sharing, automation processes, and analytics. All of these can create vulnerability to cyber-attack.

One of the major issues with ICS-OT systems is their inherent vulnerability to cyberattacks by hackers or malicious actors looking to exploit their lack of security features or their aging and outdated operating systems. Such attack vectors can lead not only to data loss or disruption of factory operations but also potentially to physical damage to the production line itself.

That’s why manufacturers must take proactive cybersecurity guide to secure their OT systems and prevent ransomware, malware, and other malicious attacks from infiltrating the network. Whether you’re new to OT security or have an existing system in place, this guide provides an overview of best practices for securing the smart factory.

Some key tactics that should always be top of mind include:

  • Establishing authentication protocols on endpoint devices.
  • Limiting access to specific devices and resources in the production environment.
  • Utilizing behavior analytics to detect anomalies or malicious activity in your system.
  • Ensuring your system is up-to-date with all necessary software patches and security updates.
  • Implementing robust password policies.

Understanding Threats to Secure OT Environments

Securing a factory’s operational technology (OT) environment is key to protecting the smart factory from digital attacks. Understanding the threats that particular environments face is the first step to securing them.


Malware attacks have become increasingly sophisticated, making it harder for legacy systems to detect and defend against them. Attackers can use malware to infect systems, steal data, or shut down production lines. Manufacturers must have a deep understanding of the environment of smart factories and employ dedicated security measures to identify and protect against these threats.

Insider Threats

Employees can be a threat due to their access to critical systems as well as their ability to manipulate data if they gain unauthorized access. To protect against this type of attack, manufacturers should implement a multi-level authentication system and ensure all employees are trained in cybersecurity best practices. Additionally, companies should monitor user activity and enforce strict access control rules for privileged users.

Network Vulnerabilities

OT networks are typically closed off from external networks, but attackers can still exploit vulnerabilities in these connected systems. Manufacturers need to identify any potential vulnerabilities in their networks and patch them quickly to prevent malicious actors from taking advantage of them.

By understanding the threats facing operational technology systems, manufacturers will be better equipped to secure their smart factories from digital attackers and ensure they can operate safely and efficiently.

Preparing for OT Cybersecurity in a Smart Factory

The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and the use of connected systems present exciting possibilities for the smart factory, but with this increased connectivity comes greater responsibility for securing data and networks from cyberattacks. It’s important to take steps to assess your security posture, make sure your systems are protected, and train staff on best practices for staying secure.

Here’s a cybersecurity guide for manufacturers to get started:

  1. Identify assets and data: Take an inventory of what is connected to the network in your smart factory. This includes hardware such as RTUs, PLCs, sensors, and other components, as well as software such as SCADA systems or ERPs. Make sure you know where all the sensitive data is located and that it is secured appropriately.
  2. Establish a cybersecurity policy: Implement a comprehensive OT security policy or update existing policies if needed. This should include assessments of the assets and data identified in step 1, defining roles and responsibilities throughout the organization, establishing access control procedures such as authentication protocols or two-factor authentication, making sure there are appropriate backup processes in place, designing incident response plans so that everyone knows what to do if something goes wrong, and performing periodic risk assessments.
  3. Secure network access: Secure remote access points from unauthorized users by using firewalls, VPNs, or physical segmentation of networks. Implement proper authentication protocols for users both inside and outside the organization who need access to systems on the network. Lastly, always patch any known vulnerabilities promptly to prevent malicious actors from taking advantage of them.

Best Practices for Securing Manufacturing Operations

Keeping your smart factory up-to-date and secure against cyber threats requires implementing a set of best practices. Taking a holistic approach to security means understanding the risks associated with this technology and taking the necessary steps to protect your operations from potential attacks. 

When implementing OT security, manufacturers must combine digital tools with physical control measures to achieve successful cyber defense. Here are some best practices every manufacturer should adhere to:

Regularly Monitor for Vulnerabilities

Performing regular vulnerability assessments and scanning for any potential security threats will help keep your OT infrastructure secure. Identifying and resolving any issues quickly can prevent future problems down the road.

Utilize Multi-Factor Authentication

Two-factor or multi-factor authentication should be used to strengthen access protection measures, as it requires users to provide additional credentials beyond their basic password. This adds an extra layer of security by making it harder for malicious actors to access your systems.

Develop Security Policies

Security policies guide how to handle security issues and should be regularly reviewed and updated to ensure that all processes are up-to-date with industry standards and guidelines.

Install Security Software Updates Regularly

Firmware and software updates should be regularly installed to patch any vulnerabilities or flaws in your system’s security measures. These updates may include bug fixes, feature improvements, or new security protocols, so it’s important to keep them up-to-date in order to protect yourself from external threats.

Network Segregation

It is critical to separate IT networks from OT networks. This means using different filters, firewalls, and configurations for each type of network. In addition, those managing the different sections of the network should be identified, trained,and authorized.

Phased System Upgrade Process

Manufacturing operations should regularly update their systems with the latest patches and anti-virus software whenever possible. Phasing them in over an appropriate period of time is a better approach than introducing them all at once, as it will help prevent errors caused by compatibility issues among components.

Secure Administration Protocols

To protect operational technology (OT) devices such as industrial robots, it is important to limit direct access to the system. Administrators should require authentication and authorization protocols before granting access to the system or its components.

Security Awareness Training

Everyone working on or around a smart factory must have security training so they understand how their actions could lead to data breaches. Regularly educating employees on online safety practices can also help protect against phishing scams or other malicious attacks targeting individuals within the organization.


In conclusion, operational technology security is an essential consideration for any manufacturing company, regardless of size. 

With the increasing reliance on automation and digitization, it is essential to stay informed of the best practices and cyber-security programs that can help protect your data and your organization from threats. 

By following this guide, you will be better prepared to protect your data and your OT environment from cyberattacks. By implementing the right cyber-security program, you will not only benefit from improved security but also improved operational efficiency, which, in the long run, can help maximize the profitability of your business.